The mean data from the individual experiments are colorized to allow for separate visualization. C Same data as in B , but with the experimental data normalized to the mock infection for each respective experiment. The resulting viral titers in the culture supernatants were determined by plaque assays on Vero E6 cells.
Average values with standard error mean are shown, along with the individual data points. The experiment was initially optimized and then performed in triplicate. The extent of infection was analyzed by flow cytometry. The graph shows a composite of three separate experiments, each performed in triplicate.
G Same data as in F , but with each experimental dataset normalized to the uninfected control. Cell viability was measured using CellTiter-Blue. These findings were then extended to Hep3B cells and mutants altered in HS biosynthesis using a viral plaque assay. The number of plaques was then quantitated by staining and visualization. As a control, culture medium from infected Vero E6 cells was tested, which showed robust viral titers. Hep3B cells also supported viral replication, but to a lesser extent than Vero cells.
In this report, we provide compelling evidence that HS is a necessary host attachment factor that promotes SARS-CoV-2 infection of various target cells. These data provide crucial insights into the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection and suggest HS-S protein complexes as a novel therapeutic target to prevent infection. The glycocalyx is the first point of contact for all pathogens that infect animal cells, and thus it is not surprising that many viruses exploit glycans, such as HS, as attachment factors.
In these examples, initial tethering of virions to the host cell plasma membrane appears to be mediated by HS, but infection requires transfer to a proteinaceous receptor. Coronaviruses can utilize a diverse set of glycoconjugates as attachment factors. Unlike lectins that have a common fold that helps define the glycan-binding site, HSBPs do not exhibit a conserved motif that allows accurate predictions of binding sites based on primary sequence. Instead, the capacity to bind heparin appears to have emerged through convergent evolution by juxtaposition of several positively charged amino acid residues arranged to accommodate the negatively charged sulfate and carboxyl groups present in the polysaccharide, and hydrophobic and H-bonding interactions stabilize the association.
There is precedent for targeting protein-glycan interactions as therapeutic agents. COVID patients typically suffer from thrombotic complications ranging from vascular micro-thromboses, venous thromboembolic disease, and stroke, and often receive UFH or low molecular weight heparin Thachil, Effective anticoagulation is achieved with plasma levels of heparin of 0. This concentration is equivalent to 1. Additional studies are needed to address the potential overlap in the dose response profiles for heparin as an anticoagulant and antiviral agent and the utility of non-anticoagulant heparins.
Antibodies directed to HS or the binding site in the RBD might also prove useful for attenuating infection. Further information and request for resources should be directed to the Lead Contact, Thomas Mandel Clausen tmandelclausen health. Human bronchial epithelial cells were acquired from Lonza. Specific details on the culture methods are described in the Methods section.
Postmortem human tissues were collected from a deceased individual at the University Hospital at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark. The participant provided consent for the post-mortem tissue to be used for research purposes. All samples were deidentified entirely before transfer to the researchers, and thus did not need IRB approval. The tissue was treated as explained in the Methods section. Heparin-protein contacts and energy contributions were evaluated using the Molecular operating environment MOE software Chemical Computing Group.
Recombinant protein was eluted with buffer containing 0. Recombinant protein was expressed by transient transfection of mammalian ExpiF suspension cells. Samples of the recombinant trimeric spike protein ectodomain were diluted to 0. Grids were transferred to a Thermo Fisher Morgagni operating at 80 kV. The pixel size was 2. McLellan, University of Texas at Austin. Bound protein was washed with buffer and eluted with 0.
Glycine 0. A set of wells were set up without heparin. A solution 0. The next day, the wells were washed twice with 0. The wells were washed 5 times with 0. TMB Turbo substrate was added to each well 0. The reaction was quenched by addition of 0. ACE2 binding was measured to bound spike protein as described above. Samples were diluted to 0. These datasets employed a box size of and comprised to micrographs.
The cells were seeded into a well plate at 10 5 cells per well. In some experiments, a portion of the cells was treated with HSase mix 2. All experiments were done a minimum of three separate times in three technical replicates. Data analysis was performed using FlowJo software and statistical analyses were done in Prism 8 GraphPad.
Fresh human tissue was washed in PBS, frozen, and lyophilized. The accumulative extracted ion current XIC was computed, and further data analysis was carried out as described in the documentation for the Qual Browser software provided by Thermo-Finnigan. To generate the Cas9 lentiviral expression plasmid, 2. After 7 d, the cells were serially diluted into well plates. Proper editing was verified by sequencing Genewiz Inc. Cells were seeded at 10, cells per well in a well plate.
Cells infected with GFP containing virus were visualized by fluorescence microscopy and counted by flow cytometry. The solution was transferred to a black well plate and luminescence was detected using an EnSpire multimodal plate reader Perkin Elmer. Data analysis and statistical analysis was performed in Prism 8.
Zombie UV was used to gate for live cells in the analysis. Virus titers were determined by plaque assays on Vero E6 monolayers. The monolayer was washed once with PBS and stained with 0. Heparinase was added to the apical side for half an h prior to infection.
An MOI of 0. Unbound virus was removed, the apical surface was washed and the compounds were re-added to the apical chamber. Infection was analyzed by flow cytometry as explained above. Briefly, Vero cells were seeded into a 96 well plate. The cells were treated with HSase mix 2. Fluorescence was read at excitation nm and emission nm, using an EnSpire multimodal plate reader Perkin Elmer. Data analysis was performed in Prism. The human Bronchial epithelial cells were grown at an air-liquid interface as explained above.
Cell viability after treatment with HSase mix 2. All statistical analyses were performed in Prism 8 Graphpad. All experiments were performed in triplicate and repeated as indicated in the figure legends. Data was analyzed statistically using unpaired t tests when two groups were being compared or by one-way ANOVA without post hoc correction for multiple comparisons. The error bars in the figures refer to mean plus standard deviation SD values. The specific statistical tests used are listed in the figure legends and in the methods section.
Caradonna and AI for J. Clausen, D. Caradonna, S. All authors discussed the experiments and results and read and approved the manuscript. The terms of this arrangement have been reviewed and approved by the University of California, San Diego in accordance with its conflict of interest policies. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Sep Sandoval , 1, 19 Charlotte B.
Spliid , 1, 2, 18 Jessica Pihl , 1, 2, 18 Hailee R. Perrett , 3 Chelsea D. Painter , 1, 4 Anoop Narayanan , 5 Sydney A. Majowicz , 5 Elizabeth M. Kwong , 6 Rachael N. McVicar , 6 Bryan E. Thacker , 7 Charles A. Glass , 7 Zhang Yang , 8 Jonathan L. Torres , 3 Gregory J.
Golden , 1, 4 Phillip L. Bartels , 1, 17 Ryan N. Porell , 9 Aaron F. Hauser , 11 Timothy M. Caradonna , 11 Benjamin P. Kellman , 13, 14, 15 Cameron Martino , 13, 14 Philip L. Gordts , 10, 17 Sumit K. Chanda , 12 Aaron G. Schmidt , 11, 16 Kamil Godula , 9, 17 Sandra L. Leibel , 14 Joyce Jose , 5 Kevin D. Corbett , 1 Andrew B. Ward , 3 Aaron F. Carlin , 10 and Jeffrey D. Daniel R. Charlotte B. Hailee R. Chelsea D. Sydney A.
Elizabeth M. Rachael N. Bryan E. Charles A. Jonathan L. Gregory J. Phillip L. Ryan N. Aaron F. Blake M. Timothy M. Benjamin P. Philip L. Sumit K. Aaron G. Sandra L. Kevin D. Andrew B. Jeffrey D. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVIDrelated research that is available on the COVID resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Graphical Abstract. Open in a separate window. B ACE2 binding to immobilized spike protein. Winning trainer : Cormac Doyle. Winning jockey : Mr P A King. Winning trainer : S Curling. Winning jockey : Mr J W Hannon. Winning trainer : E Gallagher. Winning jockey : Mr B O'Neill.
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