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Upon general principles, they supposed that the Egyptians must have had all alphabet. Fact first proved by trilingual monument dug up by the French troops at Rosetta, in Egypt, containing a decree in honor of Ptolemy Epiphanes, in Greek on one side, in hieroglyphics on the other, and enchorial on the third.
Supposed the same decree on each side, but in different languages-Greek translated the other two. Supposed further, that the hieroglyphics encompassed in an elliptical basrelief, called cartouche, must be the name of the king, Ptolmnes. In same manner on another monument the name of Cleopatra was deciphered. The correspondence of five letters common to the two names proved the truth of the conjecture. In this way the names of numerous kings were quickly deciphered, and great light was shed over the Egyptian history.
The Phonetic constituted about two-thirds of all found on the monuments. Wazctt the principz le ont which the Egyptians chose signs for their letters? That hieroglyphic of any object might be used to signify initial letter in the name of the object; e. How, on this principle, could the signs be prevented fJiro indefinite increase? Merely by arbitrary limitation. No letter has more than eight or ten signs for it. But all that were selected were chosen on the principle stated.
Why is the history of Egypt so interesting? TWho supposed to be the founder? Ham, son of Noah, and was anciently called Misraim, after son of Ham. Situation and boundaries? Egypt almost as small as England. Divisions of Egypt? Three-upper, middle, and lower. Thebais from city Thebes, Heptanomis, or seven nomes, and the Deltas. Character of government?
Three estates-king, priests, and soldiers. The priests controlled the king to great extent, e. Diodorus says early in morning king attended to state affairs-then sacrifices and prayers-then priest rehearsed his praises and reminded him of his duties, and read to him from lives of the great kings. I-ow was Egypt divided for p olitical pu rposes? Into nomes.
Origin of nomes? Iost probably a division first made for religious purposes. Each one had its own temple, and was under its own governor, and worshipped often gods of its own, not only distinct from, but frequently hostile to those of its neighbors. TWas the government of Egypt always a consolidated despotism? Egypt at first seems to have been divided into tribes, and afterwards into nomes-each having government of its own. This government was probably consolidated by the expulsion of the Hyksos or Shepherd kings, and partly by the policy of Joseph during the years of faminewhen the king became a sort of feudal proprietor of all the lands.
But the priests never lost their power. WVotld not Egypt have been greater with a more consolidated government? Great consolidated empires unfavorable to individual energy and greatness; they are without a history, e. Division of lands in Egypt? Principal portion belonged to the three ruling castes-kings, priests, and soldiers. What the law in regard to trades, occupations, 4-c.?
All hereditary; son followed business of father. What degree of consanguinity allowed of in marriage? Even brothers and sisters. Causes —lst, Isis and Osiris married; 2d, Brothers and sisters kept separate from each other. Divided into two branches-Esoteric and Exoteric -mystical and the popular. Former, religion of the priests, not known to the people.
Egyptianm mythology? This supreme mind. Theory of Orpheus that the world was hatched from an immense egg by fiery nature of spirit, taken from this. Ammon, under a modification, represented the male spirit of the universe, called Nef or Nour-the good genius-vivifying principle, vis vivica, described so well by Virgil: "Spiritus intus aliit, totamque infusa per artus, "Mens agitat nolein, et toto se corpore miscet.
Her chief temple at Sais. Inscription on her temple, "I am all that has been, all that is, and all that will be. In Vedas, Vishnou is spoken of in similar strain,' All which has been, all which is, and all which will be, are in Vishnou. Sme, goddess of justice, answers to Themnis. Osiris answers to Pluto, Isis to Proserpine and Ceres both. Whole world divided into three zones. I st, Earth, or zone of trial; 2d, zone of air, agitated by winds and storms, zone of temporal punishment; 3d, above these two, zone of rest; these three subdivided into thirty-two.
God Pooh presided over second zone, where bad spirits were tormented, till they came either to earth,-to animate a new body according to doctrine of transmigration of souls , or passed to third zone, into pure ether of rest. Origin of Grecian notions about Acheron, Charon, Cerberus, 4-c.? For city of Memphis is common place of burial beyond the lake Acheirjsia or Acharejish, meaning last state or condition of man.
On border of this lake sat a tribunal of forty-two judges, who decided whether deceased should be buried beyond the lake; virtuous entitled. The good carried over in a boat, for which a stated sum was paid. Cemetery was large plain, surrounded by trees intersected by canals, called elisant or elisiczns, meaning rest.
Hence lake Acheron, Tartarus, Chatron, and the elysian fields of the Greeks. Again, after interment, three cries or farewells were uttered by the attendants. On tomb, horse of the Nile was engraved, or placed on the qnummnzy. Greeks mistook this for a dog, and connecting it with three farewell shouts, represented a triple-headed dog called Cerberus, from Egyptian ceriber, meaning cry of the tomb.
Animal worship. Animals worshipped kept in consecrated inclosures, attended by higher classes, and buried with royal pomp. Fire terrific, says Herodotus, because of the danger to cats, and not to children. Cry, save the cats. Roman ambassador who killed a cat.
Puzzle of Theme? What kept these cats from multiplying to an alarming extent, with such kind treatment? Thinks the kittens were not gods, and therefore destroyed before deified. We acquire love for animals in certain situations. Tartar for his horse, and the Arab for his camel. Learqning of Egyptians? Surpassed rest of the world in early times. Moses was said to possess the wisdom of Egyptians, and Solomon hyperbolically spoken of as possessing more than the boasted wisdom of Egypt.
Geometry was first studied in this country. Annual inundation produced annual processioning. Derivation of the term-ge, terra. Anecdote of Thales, and the discovery of the mode of inscribing right angled triangle in a circle-of Pythagoras and the 47th Euclid; former sacrificed an ox, the latter one hundred; the latter doubted, because Pythagoras believed in transmigration of souls.
In medicine, profession divided physician for each great division of human system. Theory about the duration of human life-astrology. The horoscope of each individual was cast at birth, and this superstition threw great power into hands of priests. Because almost cut off from world by sea and desert, she was left to her own resources for aggrandizement.
Sesostris was her most warlike monarch. Hieroglyphics have proved his existence and mighty power. What did her wealth, and civillization depend on? Upon the development of her internal resources. Physicalcharacter of Egypt? Soil finest in world-the gift of the Nile. Nile commences rising about summer solstice, and continues till about autumnal equinox; caused by periodical rains in the mountains of Ethiopia; a rich slime is deposited, which renews every year the powers of the soil.
Water is spread over the country by canals, and if the inundation does not reach a certain height, a famine or scarcity is sure to ensue; for in Egypt it rarely rains, hence perfect preservation of monuments and paintings. Different appearances of Egypt in July, Auguzst, 4-c. By the Libyan chain of mountains, a stony ridge covered with sand. On the west it sinks down into the great desert; on the east into the fertile valley of the Nile; guards Egypt against invasions of sandsyou have have here the region of fertility bordering on the waste.
Again, in valley you have the habitations of the living; at foot of Libyan chain, and in the sides of mountains, you have countless graves and sepulchres -you have emjpir'e of life bordering on empire of death. This circumstance powerfully influenced the character of the nation. Character of the countr'y on the ecaste'rn side of the Nile from the valley to the A. From this district came the materials for all the splendid monuments of Egypt.
Valley of Nile, in whole course through Upper and Middle Egypt, was covered with succession of cities and monuments; those of Upper Egypt Thebais most magnificent. Pyramids belong to Middle Egypt. As you ascend the Nile, Tentyris, now Dendccra, on west side, is first city in Upper Egypt to strike beholder with its gigantic and massive architecture, so different from any thing on globe. Here is the temple with the famous Zodiac.
Twenty miles higher up, come to great city of Anlmon-mighty Thebes-whole width. Temples towering like mountains, surrounded by scattered colossi, sphinxes, and obelisks. Ascending the Nile, link after link of this chain of monuments follows in rapid succession. Just beyond the bounds of Thebes, ruins of Hermanthis present themselves-then beautiful temple of Esnek, ancient Latopolis-then Edfu, the ancient Apollinopolis lagnrza, with the most magnificent temple, except that of Thebes; then come monuments of Eliethyca, Silsilis, and Ombos.
Twenty-five miles farther we come to limits of ancient Egypt, and here are the most splendid monuments. At Philce they show the tomb of Osiris-on the isle of Elephantis, Greeks, Romans, and Arabs, erected monuments here which are now scattered in the dust; but those of old Egypt, thousand years older than the oldest, defy destruction! No wonder that travellers have supposed sometimes that a race of giants must have built these great monuments.
The lake Moeris, miles in circumference, was to great extent artificial, intended to receive waters of the Nile for the dry season. Near this was the Labyrinth, of which Herodotus said, "all the buildings of the Greeks together could not have cost so much. On these monuments, especially of Upper Egypt, we see much that became the model to the Israelite. The ark of the covenant, the cherubim with their extended wings, the holy candlesticks, the show bread, and many parts of the Jewish sacrifices, all appear in the engravings of Thebes.
Art chitecture of Jews was that of Egyptians on a small scale; they had more wood, because Egypt had no Lebanon with cedars. But most enduring monuments are Pyramids, found only in Middle Egypt, generally built on square or triangular bases, well fitted to resist effects of time and flood.
Largest is that of Cheops, height feet height of St. Paul's steeple , square base, each side feet; surface covered , square feet, or about 11 acres! Casts no shade at mid-day. Herodotus, height - length of side Strabo, - do. These pyramids have all one side due north, and others of course fronting cardinal points. Some distance up on north side, there is a small opening, often concealed by marble fitting it, which leads down by a slope, of little more than 26 degrees with the horizon, to a great distance.
In the interior always a well at great depth-a small chamber with sarcophagus sometimes containing bones belonging to bovine species, probably of sacred bulls. Object of the PyJramids? Some say for granaries. Aristotle says they were the works of tyrants-Pliny thinks built for ostentation, and to divert public mind; all refer them to shepherd kings. True cause, for purposes of religion, for burial, and perhaps for astronomical purposes.
The sloping way descending at angle of 26 just suits for observation on north star when it passes the meridian below the pole. Their belief that the soul would again unite with the body after years, made them wish to preserve body; hence art of embalming, and great care in burying; hence dread of the sea; hence splendid sepulchral monuments.
Origin of Egyptian style of Architecture? Character of sculpture and painting? First, grand without grace-latter remarkable for freshness of colors after thousands of years. What race probably inhabited Egypt when centre of the.
World's civilization? IHerodotus says a black race with woolly hair. Are we to conrclude they were negroes? No, his expression mavbeinterpreted dark brozwn with curly hair. Amminianus Marcellinus says, plerique subfusculi sutnt et atrati-color of present Co2pts. Yes, e. Figure of king several times-always same —nothing of negro-more than attendants, nothing still-seem to have rather Grecian profile. Representations on obelisks, heads of sphinxes, and deities, have nothing of the negro.
Painting in sepulchres, fresh as yesterday, prove that the ruling caste was not negro, e. Again, in royal sepulchre at Thebes, explored by Belzoni, there are decapitated persons, all Negroes; those destroying them, red. In this sepulchre we have white, red, and black, most accurately drawn. Two contracts exist, one at Paris, fac-simile of the other at Berlin-in latter Parmenthes, seller, called of dar'kish brown color, and buyer, honey colored or yellowish; same color of buyer, Osarreres, in Parisian.
Nose and face described, but no negro featutres. That different races in Egypt, and that one approaching to white was the ruling race, while negroes were always subjects and slaves. General description of Asia? It stretches from the Frozen Ocean through the temperate zone almost to the equator.
Europe stops in Mediterranean-Asia four times as large as Europe-its productions more varied and superior to those of Europe-land more fertile-more incommoded by deserts than Europe. Arabia and Cobi; not so much as Africa. Describe the two Inountain ranges which for7n the grCand divisions of Asia?
They are the Atltaic and the Tauric. From west to east, beginning just above the Caspian sea-sends off branch to north under name of Ural mountains, stretches to the Arctic. The main chain, with mean elevation of 6 or feet, crosses southern Siberia-widening as it goes east, fills the territory of the Tungusians, and the shores of Siberia, losing itself on the shores of the Pacific.
They flow from these two chains of mountains; e. Irtish, Yenesei and Lena, three of largest rivers in old world, rise in Altaic range, and empty their waters in Arctic ocean, through north of Siberia. Out of the same range rise the Oxus and Iaxartes, flowing into the sea of Aral. On the eastern side rise the great rivers of China, Hoangho and Keangkhu, flowing into eastern ocean. Grand divisions gmade by the two chains of qnoznztains?
This great table land of Asia, lying between 40 and 50 degrees north latitude, colder than similar latitudes in Europe. Physical cha'racter of this region? Whole region a sort of prairie-very few trees-too far from market for agriculture-generally fertile-covered with a luxuriant growth of herbage, equal to height of cattle which feed on it. Third g'reat division of Asia? Third or southern division, partly filled up by ramifications of Momnt Taurus, partly to south of this range-extends in shape of a continent to tropic of Cancer; beyond which three great peninsulas Arabia, Hindostan, and Malacca, reach far into torrid zone; comprises the richest and most fertile legions of globe-temperate climate-large rivers-grandest and choicest pro.
Character of the people on great central plains of Asia? Nomads, with tents and encampments, instead of cities and houses. Wealth in sheep, cattle, horses, and camels. Milk and flesh constitute their dietskins, fleece, and hair constitute their clothing. Constantly in motion — always on horseback. Chapracter of the people of thi'rd division?
With few exceptions, agricultural. These were earliest magazines of wealth and civilization. Life of nomads fits them for war; always in open air —untiring horsemen —wants limitedbaggage light-move from region to region with all their flocks and families. They have been the scourge and renovating power of the nations of the earth.
Their history uniform; true descendants of Ishmael-eternal depredators on civilized nations. Most all the conquests in ancient times, except Macedonian and Roman, came from that quarter. Governzzents which they formed? Patriarchal and militarysometimes inmmense; e. Saracen kingdom extended from Morocco and Spain to Hindostan; and successors of Genghis-Khan had armies at same time in Silesia and under wall of China.
Government partakes of nature of a military encampment. Commerce of Asia? Of two kinds; by water and land-the latter principally by caravans. Vast extent of Asiatic continent-predatory habits of nomads-want of navigable rivers, and of timber for boats on table-land-number and extent of deserts-all make large associations necessary for commerce.
These associations are caravans; large military escort-camels principal beasts of burden-have stations of rest called caravansaries-have great routes —cities built and kingdoms enriched by their trade; e. Asia, Commodities carried by caravans? Not bulky —such as Ist, Precious commodities, e. What nations best situated for commerce?
Those that could enjoy both land and sea; e. Phonicia, Tyre, Carthage, and Asia Minor, formed the two ter'mini of the caravan and sea trade. Where was this kingdom, and whence the name? In Asia, between Euphrates and Tigris, and derives its name from tower of Babel. Very warm-rains rarely-requisite moisture supplied by overflowing of the Euphrates, caused by melting of snow and ice in the mountains of Armenia. How is the country irrigated?
By help of canals and lakes, by which the whole plain is filled. This, one cause of persevering energy of Babylonians. These canals so broad as to impede invasion of nomads. Xenophon with 10, men could only cross them on bridges. Herodotus said it was one of the most fruitful countries on the globe, especially in corn. But like steppes generally, no wood, nor stone, or marble.
Who founder? Nimrod who seems to be the first to aspire to empire, and to break up patriarchal government. After this Babylon vanishes, and Assyrian monarchy appears, until finally overthrown by Babylonians. Period of Babylonish, history most inter'esting? Brilliant epoch during latter part of 7th century, B.
Origin of Babylonio- Chaldean empire? The Chaldeans a nomad people from mountains of Taurus and Caucasus, overwhelmed southern Asia, conquered the Syrian and Bab'ylonian plains-made Babylon the seat of empire. With these Chaldeans, Nebuchadnezzar conquered Assyria, overthrew Pharaoh Necho, king of Egypt, at Cercesium on Euphrates-destroyed Jerusalem, carried the Jews in captivity to Babylon, besieged Tyre, and established the greatest empire in the world.
These things occurred in the reigns of Jehoiakim and Zedekiah in Jerusalem, and were foretold by the prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Jeremiah favored by Nebuchadnezzar. Dream of Nebzuchadnezzar and interpretation by Daniel? Epitome of great empires. See Daniel, ch. Such as nonmads form when they become stationary-despotic. Kings never associated familiarly with subjectsshowed themselves but seldom, and then surrounded by pomp and magnificence.
Does not the splendor of Babylon seem incompatible with the condition of the people supposed to have built it? It is a peculiarity of Asiatic despotisms, that they concentrate power and magnificence. The conquered are slaves, forced to work at will oi the despot. All the artists, mechanics, carpenters, and workmen of skill, were engaged at Babylon from the four quarters of the world.
All the world was robbed by Nebuchadnezzar, to beautify and enrich Babylon. Hence results here which could not hlave taken place under other circumstances. Description of Babylon? Built after the model of a regular encampment; square form, 15 miles to the side, surrounded with a ditch and walls feet in height, and 87 thick, 25 gates on each side, 3 towers between every two gates; corresponding to the gates, 25 streets cut at right angles, 25 streets running in opposite direction, making squares; counting some of outer squares, Walls made of brick and bitumen taken from ditch.
Euphrates runs from north to south, and guarded by walls on banks similar to outer walls, in which 25 great gates opposite the streets. Was the poprulation of Babylon as larg'e as the dimnenions of the city twould indicate? No, city was very open-streets feet wide-each square of buildings was three-fifths of a mile in length, and all the inner space was in gardens-this one reason of its capacity to stand a long siege.
The population at most flourishing epoch was not computed at more than 1,,; less than the population of London, and several of the cities of Asia. Hacging- garldens of NVebuchadcnezzar? Were in front of the royal palace, consisted of terraces raised one above another, with stairs 10 feet wide-these terraces supported by large buttresses covered with pebbles and earth-then with a platform of lead to prevent water fromn passing-then with earth sufficient to produce largest trees-on the top was an aqueduct supplied with water from river; height feet.
Cau6se of their erection? Ainyite the Mede, wife of Nebuchadnezzar, wanted something to break dull monotony of plain, and like the mountains of her native land; hence these gardens. There were two splendid royal palaces, one three and the other seven and a half miles in circumference, besides the temple and tower of Belus, supposed to have been the celebrated tower of Nimrod mentioned in scripture. Tower of Belus or Baal, i. Nebuchadnezzar enlarged the temple with immense buildings, more than a mile in circumference-surrounded it with walls two and a half miles in circuit, supplied with brazen gates-which were made in part of the brazen sea, the brazenr pillars, and the brazen vessels taken from the temple of Jerusalem.
All the buildings in Babylon were of brick, and Moses says tower of Bable was of brick, and on plain of Shinar. Character of Babylonish. Influenced by their building materials-had neither stone nor wood, and therefore all monuments were of brick; hence the absence of the colu1mnn, which stamps character in Grecian architecture-hence ruins are but heaps of broken bricks. Upon many of the bricks inscriptions are found-supposed by some to be contracts. Sculpture scarcely existed here, because of want of marble and stone.
General character of the city bunder Nebuchadnezzar? Most magnificent city on earth. Called in scripture, the great-the praise of the whole earth —the beauty of the Chalcdees' excellency-tthe glor'y oJ kingdoms-the golclen city —a laldy-the acldy of kingdoms-a queen for ever! IIas any city been erected inz mnodern, times sim2ilar to Babylon, and which can to azy extent illustrate the account given of Babylon by Herodotius?
Was the sittuation of Babylon favorable to commnerce? Exceedingly so; spoken of in scripture as a land of traffic-a city of mwerchants. Ezekiel 17, 4. Euphrates poured into Persian gulf, infinitely superior to Arabian gulf for commerce, which is long, narrow, and rocky, [H. Porter says sounds of voices and rustling of silks remind one of swarms of bees.
Bagdad is still great caravansary of Asia. Alay it not be doubtedl whether Euphrates was navigable below Babylon? It is not now; but from Isaiah, we suppose it was under Nebuchadnezzar and his successors. Chaldeans are spoken of as exulting in their ships. Religion of the Babylonians? Of the most idolatrous character. Three stages of idolatry: 1st, worship of sun, moon and stars; 2d, image worship; 3d, hero worship.
Explain origin of the first? Heavenly bodies naturally arrest attention of the mind and produce devotion, e. Again, wide plain of Babylon, pastoral life. Great observatory on tower of Belus increased this propensity. Origin of second stage, image worship? We require something to strike senses-hence nmaterialism of most religions-hence the denunciations in the Bible against worshipping stocks, and stones, and graven imnages.
Again, this image worship produced more complexity, and favored priestcraft. Principal images worshippecd in Babylon? Those of the Suz, and six planets, Satrn,. Jupiter, MICars, 3Ie cury, Venus, and the 71loon, Temple of Belus or Baal was supposed to have been erected to the Sun, but after time of Nebuchadnezzar it was in honor of the planet Jupiter, and the golden image, more than 40 feet high, in sitting posture, was probably of the divinity, supposed to reside in the planet.
Origin qof third stage of idolatry, hero worship? Great love and gratitude, especially after death, which we have for those who have rendered great services to their country. What kind of learning in Babylon? Principally judicial astrology. That naturally leads to this study? A belief that the stars are instinct with divinity, and that it is their province to supervise the affairs of this world. State of mnorals in Babylon? Excessively corrupt-their banquets were the most disgusting debauches, e.
MIilitar2y character of the Babylonians? Under Nebuchadnezzar and his father, best soldiers in the world-appropriately styled in scripture, the hagmmer of the whole earth —the battle-axe-the weapons of war, proper to break in pieces nations, and to destroy kingdoms. In 70 years totally changed, and far inferior io the hardy mountaineers under Cyrus from Persia and Media.
How came the Chaldeans, a nomad race, simple in their habits, and hardy warriors, thus to degenerate in so short a time in both mnoral and military point of view? Universally the case with great empires formed by shepherd kings. A rude, ignorant people, suddenly acquiring immense wealth, are sure to indulge in every extravagance and vice; they can only enjoy their possessions as senscualists —all self-government is lost-the most shameless extravagance prevails.
Herodotus tells us that certain districts were condemned to furnish certain things. We are told that Tritontoechmus, the satrap of Babylon in Xerxes' time, devoted four cities to the maintenance of his dogs. Hence Jeremiah calls Babylon the golden cup that made all the earth drunken, and all the nations mad. Do wealth and luxury nzow produce the same effects as formnerly?
Modern civilized nations are not injured by these-they are benefited; it is a semi-barbarous, rude, unenlightened people alone who are corrupted by them. Successors of lNebuchadnezzar? Neriglissar ruled four years; followed by son, a minor, who was murdered after nine months.
Nabonid or Laby Netus the Belshazzar of Daniel , and grandson of Nebuchadnezzar, was placed on throne: his mother Nitocris, wife of Evil-Merodach, regent during his minority. Iowt was war with l1cedes and Persians brought on? By hunting excursion of Evil-Merodach, and an attack he made on some Medes with a garrison sent to the relief of a frontier town of Babylon.
A hardy race north of Babylonish empire, led on by Cyrus, the greatest general of his day. Thus was founded Medo-Persian empire on the ruins of the Babylonish. Fate of the Jews? In the first year of Cyrus's reign B. Fate of the city of Bcabylon? It has realized the awful prophecies of Isaiah ch. All modern travellers represent it as a haunt for wild beasts and owls, and the inhabitants of the east regard it as as a place visited by spirits, and are very fearful of passing the night therelitcr'ally verifying the prophecies.
What becamne the capital of Iecldo —Persian emprie? Susa, and Bablyon began immediately to decline. Inportance of histor y of Phenicia? Most interesting in consequence of her great trade, peculiar government, and peaceable policy. Because history of one of latter is the history of the others. History of Phoenicia can be made out from no other nations. Wlo were the Phacnicians supposed to be descendants of? Ham-originally divided into 11 families.
Sidon son of Canaan, the founder of Sidon, the most powerful city at first. Situation andc; extent? Phoenicia proper very small-on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, about miles in extent from south to north-from Tyre to Aradus-never more than 20 in breadth. Full of bays and harborsL — in some places high mountains covered with fine timbers-used in ships and houses; many islands near the shore almost as celebrated as the main land.
What were the principal cities? Sidon and Tyre; and besides these there was such a number of other cities, as that the whole territory was dotted with them, exhibiting appearance almost of an unbroken city. Sidon was oldest, and no doubt founded Tyre on main land, which became greater than parent.
Tyre on the island, near the old city, was early founded, but did not attain its greatest size till old Tyre was ruined by Nebuchadnezzar; then grew up as Venice did when Huns drove the Italians into island on which it is situated. New Tyre was taken by Alexander, and finally ruined by trade centring in Alexandria of Egypt. Not very warlike; territory too small; dwelt in cities from the earliest times-depended on commerce for wealth-used mercenaries in war, as Carthage did at later period.
Government of Phscnicia? A sort of federative system —an al. Tyre became the undoubted head of the alliance in Nourishing period between time of Solomon and Nebuchadnezzar Ezekiel, ch. Although government of each city was kingly, not despotic-commerce requires liberty. Magistrates in each citymet sometimes in general congress at Tripolis, to treat of common affairs. Religion anzd p1ricsthoocl?
Hercules was principal God-there was a numerous and powerful priesthood, e. Sichoes, husband of Dido, and brother-in-law of king Pygmalion being put to death, caused the revolution, which ended in planting colony at Carthage H. We are told in I. Kings, xviii. On immense wealth created by their commerce. This well described by Ezekiel in his denunciation against Tyre ch. Tyre represented as enriched by traffic with gold and silver, and precious stones-as clothed with fine garments, and sinning in consequence of her ill-gotten wealth.
With her wealth Phoenicia subsidized other nations, and procured her soldiers by hire, e. Ezekiel, xxvii. Character of their commerce? Both sea and land trade; situated at eastern terminus of the Mediterranean, they of course pushed their sea trade west, whilst they enjoyed a caravan trade with both Asia and Africa. Wlictt their policyfor extending their marsitimnc tcade? They planted colonies along the coast of the Mediterranean, and in the islands, and by means of these they extended their commerce even to Spain and England.
So that in the language of Ezekiel, the cities of Phoenicia were "replenished and made very glorious in the midst of the seas. Phoenicia not in midst of her colonies, as Carthage was; moreover, she was never very powerful in consequence of small territory, hence her colonies were free, but traded with her because of the immense market which she possessed in Asia and Africa.
Which the most important of her colonies in a commezrciallpoint of view? Gades in Spain. Curious fact that nearly a thousand years before Christ, Spain was to Phoenicia what Mexico and Peru became in modern times to Spain. What the western terminus ojf the tr'ade of Phaenicia?
They traded beyond the straits of Gibraltar to the tin and amber islands. England is conjectured to be the former; the latter not exactly known -they certainly went far into the Atlantic. Trade on the Ar'abian Gulf or Red Sea? This trade rose out of connection with the Jews-carried on through the ports of Eloth and Ezion-Geber 1 Kings, ix.
What was the celebrated tr'ade of the Jews to the land of Ophir, mentioned in the Scripture? Heeren thinks Ophir general name for the rich countries of the south, on the African, Arabian and Indian coasts. This trade carried on chiefly by the intervention of Phoenicians. Political relations between Phmnicia and the Jews?
Of the most amicable character. Hence no wars between them. Have not some supposed that the Phceznicians circumnavigated the continent of Aftica? Herodotus tells us that Necho, king of Egypt, having finished his canal to Red Sea, sent some Phoenician mariners through that sea to Indian ocean, with orders to double Cape of Good Hope, and came in at Gibraltar, which was accomplished in three years-they stopped each year to raise supply of provisions-they told what Herodotus did not credit, that sun passed to r'ight hand.
If this voyage was made, no good resulted, for short time after Nebuchadnezzar ruined the great Tyre. Give an account of the land trade of Phcnicia? Almost as great as sea trade; three branches, 1st, Arabian, East Indian and. First very important-Arabia immense country; large portion desert; but Arabia Felix in southern part one of the richest countries of the ancient world, and as large as France.
This country traded with East Indies-spices, gold and precious stones, native products, suited to caravan trade. Job supposed to have been Arabian; well acquainted with miniing. In trade with Egypt Phoenicians supplied wine; Egypt supplied cotton, embroidered work. This trade carried on by caravans, first to Thebes and then to Memphis.
Second branch includes trade with Syria, Palestine, Babylon, and Assyria, by land-that with Babylon greatest-supposed that Balbec and. Palmyra were two caravan stations in the Syrian desert. These two cities in Jewish annals are ascribed to King Solomon, under the names of Baalath and Tadmor, and although their most celebrated ruins belong to a more modern epoch, yet there is no doubt they were great caravan stations in the time of the Jews and Phoenicians, in trade between these latter countries and the Babylonians and Assyrians.
Third branch of trade, with Armenia and the north, not so great as the other'two, but important. Did the Phcznicians carry on this trade by their own catravans and t'raders, or did they enmtploy other nations? They hired other nations. Prophet in speaking of Tyre always speaks of other nations coning cand b6inging their wares to the Tyrians.
Her dyes purest in ancient world. Decline and down:fall of Phanicia? First, conquered by Nebuchadnezzar, then by Alexander-her trade injured by rise of the Grecian cities, and power of Carthage, and subsequently by the great trade of the Mediterranean centring at Alexandria, under successors of Alexander. She was one of the most civilized nations of her day-supposed to be inventor of alphabet, which Cadmus carried into Greece.
Voltaire says a trading people like the Phoenicians, who first carried on commerce upon a large scale, must learn to write, if only to keep their accounts and traffic with others. By means of immense trade and colonization, Phoenicians acquired and disseminated all the civilization of their age. Phoenicia stands, too, an almost solitary instance in the ancient world of a nation rising to wealth and splendor, and pushing her religion, her institutions, and her civilization, over the known world, by the pacific means of trade and colonization.
Physical character of Europe compared with Asia and Africa? Not more than one-fourth of Asia in size; much smaller than Africa; in number and grandeur of natural productions, inferior to both; cultivable soil less fertile.
How stands the comparison in other respects? Europe far surpasses the other two in character of people, and in all productions of art. Asia presents one unbroken chain of grinding despotisms from earliest times. In Europe, always struggling for liberty and best forms of government-simple inventions in Asia, complex in Europe, e. When Asia has first invented, she has rarely made any valuable use of the invention, e.
China had art of printing, had gunpowder, and mariner's compass, long before Europeans, but never printed a book; made nothing but fire-works out of powder, and never applied the conmpass to navigation! In history, no Herodotus, Tacitus, Hume or Gibbon. No orators like Demosthenes, Cicero, Chatham and Burke. In war: great conquerors have come from East, and by mere numbers and physicalforce, have overthrown empires. Soldiers of Europe have been better than those of Asia, e. Macedonia ruled on Indus and Nile, and the Romans conquered known world.
In modern times, when Europe was degenerated, the Saracens were stopped by Charles Martel, and the Mongo. The Turk had gotten foothold in Europe, but Russian would soon drive him out if Europe would permit it. In mercantile adventure, nothing like European, he finds new continents-pushes his trade to the earth's limits, and civilizes, rules, or destroys wherever he goes, e. England has more than ,, of subjects at a distance of a three months' voyage. In North America the red man has almost disappeared.
Armies inferior, e. Whence proceeds this undoubted sutperiority of Eulrope over the other quar'ters of the globe? It results not from superiority of body, but of mind; and this results from following causes:-First, Caucasian or the white r'ace inhabiting Europe seems to be a superior race. It is proved so by uniform testimony of history, and other races seem intellectual in proportion to likeness to European, e.
A second cause is the physical character of Europe-stretching through the northern temperate zone, it terminates on the Mediterranean before it reaches the tropics. Principal countries lie between 40 and 60 degrees of latitude. Does not run far enough south to have enervated lazy races of the tropics; nor is there much of it near the pole, requiring whole exertion for mere subsistence. Not so fertile as Asia and Africa, but sufficiently so if cultivated.
Unsuited to nomadic life-no European nation ever lived in tents, and therefore never subject to internal migrations, the curse of Asia. Has great water frontier in proportion to its magnitude-has more bays, rivers, and not so much uniformity as to favor laregc empires like China or Hindostanno great desert like Saha'ra, or Arabia, or Cobi. Had Mediterranean been a desert, the whole character of Europe would have been changed. This chain constitutes the bulwark to the three great peninsulas of Europe —Spain, Italy, and Greece.
Against it, the wave of barbarism has generally been broken, and these countries had a breathing time for starting forward in career of civilization —had this wall been thrown down, neither Greece nor Rome could have been civilized —the Gauls and Scythians would soon have overrun them. Happened too, that countries thus protected were choice spots of Europe — sky, air, mountains, vegetation, all change on southern side of the Alps. A third cause-Polygamy everywhere in Asia, nowhere in Europe.
Civilization in Greece commenced with marriage of one man to one. One man to one woman among our German ancestors. First, destroys all family harmony, and delightful sympathy which constitutes the charm of marriage. Second, degrades woman and makes her a slave-her chastity to be guarded only by the lock and key-hence her influence so necessary to progress of civilization is lost.
Third, in every family some wives will be preferred-children of those will be treated as superiors —hence system of despotism in every family —races of children unfit for free government-hence Bno region in constant practice of polygamny has ever enjoyed a free governmnent! No people can possess rational liberty when one half the race is under surveitlance of hateful eunuchs, and a system of despotism reigns in every household!
Situation, boundaries, and extent of Greece? In south-eastern corner of Europe. On the north bordered by Epirus and Macedonia, with no exact limits. On east by Hellespont and Egean sea, dividing it from Asia. On south by Mediterranean, and on the west by the Ionian and Adriatic seas, separating it from Italy. This country less than Portugal in extent. Contrast startling between speck of earth, scarce visible on map of world, and immense influence exercised over destinies of our race.
To us mother of arts, of sciences, of law, and of republicanism; besides all this a military people, who finally conquered under Alexander almost known world. Physical character? Who were the first inhabitants of Greece, and what their char. They were in comparatively barbarous condition-in hunting and shepherd state-dwelt in caves, and are reported to have been unacquainted with use of fire. Ori0gin of this race? All that is known is that they were first settlers of Greece; whether descended from Inachus or Pelasgus, or supposed to be Autochthones, is a matter of very little importance now.
Architectzure of Pelasg'i? Masonry, Polygonal-stones fit without cement; not to be confounded with Cyclopean, composed of immense blocks of stone with small pebbles in the interstices. Most ancient architectural monuments of Europe supposed to be raised by them.
This race stamped its character on Greece, and became true Greeks; a name bestowed by foreigners. Circumstances favorable to civilization of Greece? Her situation was accessible to some of the most civilized nations of antiquity; e. Crete, Egypt, Phoenicia, Phrygia.
These nations are supposed to have colonized Greece at early period; e. Hcave wte not reason to doubt the reality of these colonies? That of Cadmus seems well authenticated; others, particularly those of Cecrops and Danaus, doubtful. History of these individuals less distinct as we go farther back into antiquity; but no reason for supposing there were zno colonies.
General circumzstances proving such colonies? First, the great population of Egypt often visited by famine and by civil wars, which drove out large numbers. Secondly, great revolutions happened in these countries about time of colonization in Greece; e. Institution of marriage, main pillar of social edifice attributed to Cecrops. Agriculture attributed to the Egyptians, and writing to the PhoeniciansCadmus introduced alphabet of sixteen letters-Duplicates omitted zeta, theta, eta, xi, phi, chi, psi, omega.
Circumstances ewhich had a tendency to retard progress of civilization? What period is embraced in the heroic ages of Greece? Between the first appearance of the Hellenes in Thessaly and the return fronm siege of Troy. Why called heroic age? Because seems to have been the period of individual prowess and heroism. Different modes by which heroes distinguished themselves? Ist, by killing wild beasts; 2d, by works of improvement; 3d, by destroying robbers and pirates; 4th, by national enterprises.
Explain the reason why killin-g twild beasts should conJer such honors. First, number of wild beasts very great; secondly, arms used not like our guns and rifles; man not far above the beasts in the conflict. To this day, when tiger appears near villages of India, they apply to Europeans for aid. Cannot wonder, therefore, that conquest of Neqzcean lion and of the boar of Erimanthus among the'great feats of Hercules. How distingzuished by second mnode?
How by thirdd'node? Robbers and pirates infested seas and lands of Greece, and were, from feebleness of government, too strong for police-hence the hero who could break up these banditti, as much distingtfished, as man who could conquer a country at more civilized age. In all these feats both courage and physical strength were necessary with the imperfect weapons of antiquity.
Not so much so now. In new countries, however, we see something of the same thing now-a-days, e. Fourth, by national undertakings? When successful, would of course confer renown, as at present day. Exemplify all these modes of obtaining renownn by traditions of Hercules? All these peculiar to society in infancy. All these seem of a national character. Three great feats. First, journey from Troozen to Athens; second, victory over the l3Iinotaur?
First, in going to Athens from Troezen, to claim the crown, he did not cross Saronic gulf, but went by landroad haunted by monsters and savage men. In Epidaurus won brazen mace, with which Periphetes had surprised unwary-he killed the robber himself. In Isthmus tore Sinis to pieces by two pines, he had killed travellers with, and destroyed the wild sow of Crommyon, named Phoea, supposed by some, female robber.
In Megara, stopped at narrow pass, hewn in cliff by Sciron, from which he threw travellers into seaTheseus conquered Sciron and threw him into sea, clearing Scironian route of all monsters and robbers. On this same journey he stretched Procrustes on his own bed. Theseus goes himself to Crete-is well received by king Minos, and procures exemption from tribute.
Third, in his journey to Crete, becomes acquainted with foreign institutions and laws, and on his return to Athens remodels the government and laws. Were thefeats of the heroes peiformeled in companies or by solitary individuals? Hercules and Theseus perform their feats alone, or with only one comrade-in the Theban wars we find a union of seven chiefs-confederacies became frequent in latter part of heroic age —numerous band combined against the Caledonian boarc —many chiefs united in the Argonautic expedition, and subsequently in the siege of Trov —individuality, however, characteristic of this age, as of chivalry.
Some think that the gold flowing down the streams in Colchis was caught in fleeces, and that gold alone. The bulls have been supposed to be a savage race of people called Taurti, who made war on the Greeks: others give a purely religious character to the whole affair. Who were the heroes in this expedition, and why called Argonautic? Jason, Orpheus, Tydeus, Telamon, and in general, fathers of the heroes at siege of Troy —name taken from the great ship Argo; first fifty oared galley the Greeks ever built.
Against whom was the next great combination of the Greeks? Where situated? WTho thefbunder, anld what orlder of succession to king Pr'iam? Dardanus of Greek origin, with a colony of Greeks and Phrygians, supposed founder, who built city on the mountain. His son Erichtthonus. In his reign Homer says it was taken and sacked by Hercules. Sixth, Priam, son of Laomedon, in whose reign it was besieged and taken by the Greeks. What the causes of' the war'?
Paris, son of Priam, attracted by reputation of Helen, wife of Menalaus, king of Laconia: paid a visit to that court, and carried off Helen-hence league of all states of Greece against Troy. Again, jealousies and animosities existed between Greeks and Trojans on account of stealing boys and girls for slaves, e.
Neighboring states half civilized, always depredating on each other in this way. First, topograp2hy —an extended plain near miles in extent. Numhber of ships and troops raised against Tr'oy? In what port did they rendezvous? Length of siege, and causes of the duiration?
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